Models of civil society (CS)
Democratic models of CS
Citizen participation in politics
Opposition movements of CS

How to Cite

Shaulska, H. ., Arabadzhyiev, D. ., Postol, O. ., Lazareva, A. ., & Stohova, O. . (2023). MODELS OF CIVIL SOCIETY DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES . Lex Humana (ISSN 2175-0947), 15(2), 94–109. Retrieved from


In developing countries, civil society (hereinafter CS) development models are mostly based on traditional European democratic values. Adopting the values of democracy and the EU free market affects the development of CS. The article aims to identify and evaluate empirically the features of civil society (CS) models in developing countries. The research methodology is based on a statistical analysis of the dynamics of CS in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe: Poland, Romania, and Ukraine. The analysis uses key indicators of CS development, in particular the Human Development Index, the Civil Society Participation Index, and the Civil Liberties Index based on the data of The V-Dem Institute (2023). The results demonstrate the existence of common and distinctive democratic characteristics of the civil society development models of Ukraine, Poland, and Romania. The countries are similar in terms of the state of opposition movements against the government, moderate level of citizen participation in politics and public problem solving, the environment for citizen participation in CSOs, and at the same time, a large number of different organizations and social institutions.



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